Seizures are not difficult to detect. The hard part is figuring out why they are happening. Presented with a dog that is suspected of having some sort of seizure disorder, a veterinarian will go through a detailed initial evaluation in an attempt to figure out whether the dog’s spastic episodes, as described by its owner, actually are seizures. She will ask the owner questions about the dog’s health history, living environment, exposure to other animals, exposure to potential toxins, history of possible physical head trauma and vaccination status, among other things. She will be very interested in learning when the episodes started, what they look like, whether they have changed over time and whether they have become more or less frequent. If the veterinarian doesn’t ask about all this, the owner should be prepared to volunteer it. After taking a detailed history, the veterinarian will perform a thorough physical examination of the dog. This will include a neurological examination and a close assessment of the eyes. She will probably take blood and urine samples as well. The results of blood and urine tests may reveal metabolic disorders, poisoning, liver disease, kidney disease or other abnormalities. In dogs with primary epilepsy, the results of these tests usually are normal.