The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel acquired its name because it was a great favorite of King Charles I of Britain in the 1600s. Only royalty or the very wealthy could afford a dog who did not earn his keep by hunting or chasing varmints. King Charles II also adored this breed, and its popularity in Britain increased until the fall of the House of Stuart. Apparently, the favorite breed of William and Mary was the Pug, and it became quite a liability to be associated with the dogs of King Charles. Queen Victoria owned a Cavalier as a young child, but throughout her life her interest in developing and breeding dogs led to development of the breed known today as the English Toy Spaniel in America and the King Charles Spaniel in the United Kingdom, with a much shorter, flatter face, a domed skull and smaller in stature than the original Cavalier, which all but disappeared. This newer toy spaniel breed apparently developed from crossing Cavaliers with Pugs and the Japanese Chin.