Seizures, also called convulsions, are one of the most common neurological disorders in companion dogs. They occur when too much electrical activity is going on in the outer layers of a dog’s brain, called the “cortex,” which is responsible for thought, memory, sensation and movement. Seizures can be caused by many things, including infections, cancer, abscesses, anatomical malformations, heat stroke, liver disease, kidney disease, trauma and ingestion of toxins. The term “epilepsy” is sometimes used interchangeably with “seizures,” although technically this isn’t correct. Epileptic dogs do have unpredictable brain activity that causes them to have seizures, but not all dogs with seizures have epilepsy. Many dogs become restless or anxious before a seizure and seek affection or seclusion. Seizures typically last less than 2 minutes. They are characterized by stiff extended legs, collapse, breathing lapses, rhythmic leg jerking, chomping, drooling and sometimes urination or defecation. Afterwards, the dog may be disoriented, wobbly and confused.