Nasal Adenocarcinoma (Nose Cancer) in Dogs
Definition of Nasal Adenocarcinoma
Nasal adenocarcinoma is a slow, progressive, local infiltration by cancer cells of tissues lining the inside of the nose. Most nasal adenocarcinomas in dogs start on one side of the nasal sinuses but ultimately spread to both sides. Adenocarcinoma is the most common cause of nasal cancer in dogs. The cause of nasal adenocarcinoma is not known. Chronic exposure to environmental pollutants has been suggested as a possible contributing factor in dogs that spend a lot of time in urban settings. Exposure to secondhand smoke, wood dust and/or toxins from industrial factories have been weakly linked to nasal tumors. Genetics almost certainly play a role. Dogs with nasal adenocarcinoma usually have a discharge coming from their nose, which may contain mucus, pus and/or blood. They often develop lumps on their face, protrusion of one or both eyes, excessive tearing, sneezing, bad breath and spontaneous nosebleeds.
Despite intensive research in both animals and humans, medical science has not yet discovered the precise causes of the various forms of adenocarcinoma, including the locally invasive and usually metastatic nasal adenocarcinoma. Chronic exposure to environmental pollutants has been suggested as a possible contributing factor in dogs that spend the majority of their time in urban settings. Exposure to secondhand smoke (from cigarettes), wood dust and/or toxins from the boot-making or flooring industries have all
The symptoms of canine adenocarcinoma will vary depending upon which glandular tissue is affected, the severity and extent of infiltration and metastasis and the dog’s overall systemic health - especially the functional strength of its immune system. Nasal adenocarcinoma tends to show a fairly consistent constellation of clinical signs.Nasal adenocarcinoma usually involves the slow, progressive, local invasion of the lining of the nasal cavities by neoplastic glandular cells. Typically, one nasal cavity is affected
The results of routine blood work (complete blood count and serum biochemistry panel) and urinalysis are typically normal in dogs with nasal adenocarcinomas. Most veterinarians will take swabbed samples of nasal discharge and submit them to a diagnostic laboratory for evaluation, including microscopic assessment of the cells in the samples (a process called cytology) and possibly for bacterial culture and sensitivity. If the dog presents with a history of spontaneous nose bleeds of unknown origin,
Nasal adenocarcinoma can be tricky to treat. In many cases, it can be managed, although complete cure is rarely accomplished. Therapeutic goals include alleviating discomfort, preventing further metastasis, removing as much cancerous tissue as possible and prolonging the dog’s good quality of life.If a dog is having recurrent uncontrollable nose bleeds (epistaxis), immediate medical treatment may include sedation, packing of the nasal passageways with gauze soaked in medication and application of cold compresses to the