Diagnosing Gastritis in Cats
Gastritis refers to inflammation of the lining of the stomach and is among the most common stomach disorders in cats and dogs. Gastritis in cats is normally diagnosed based upon the animal’s history, clinical signs, physical examination findings and response to treatment. It is a diagnosis of exclusion, which means ruling out other causes of the associated vomiting and discomfort. In chronic or severe cases of gastritis, blood tests, radiographs (x-rays), and biopsy of the tissue lining the stomach may be necessary to conclusively arrive at a diagnosis.
Gastritis can be chronic or acute. Most acute cases of gastritis in cats are caused by food poisoning, overeating or bacterial or viral infections. Affected animals suffer severe abdominal pain and intermittent bouts of vomiting. Most acute cases resolve through a response to treatment. Your veterinarian may recommend withholding food and giving anti-inflammatory medications even before a conclusive diagnosis is made. Most cats with acute dietary gastritis will improve relatively quickly with this simple medical management.
Cats with severe or chronic gastritis will need to undergo further diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the condition. Blood tests can help rule out systemic disease, and radiographs or ultrasound can be used to identify obstructions, tissue thickening and inflammation of the digestive tract. In cases where non-invasive treatments are not improving the cat’s clinical condition, the veterinarian may recommend surgical examination of the stomach and tissue biopsies for microscopic examination and culture. The stomach can be explored and biopsied through an endoscopic procedure while the cat is sedated.
Treating Gastritis in Cats
Treatment options for cats suffering from gastritis include withholding or restricting access to food, correcting dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, identifying and removing the underlying cause, and in some cases prescription medications and supportive care. Most cases can be managed on an outpatient basis. Surgery is sometimes necessary.
Cases of mild or acute gastritis typically are treated by withholding food for at least 24 hours, and maybe longer if recommended by the veterinarian. This gives the cat’s stomach time to recover and the inflammation time to subside. Normally water is not withheld, but it should be offered in small quantities every few hours. Cats with gastritis tend to become dehydrated and quite thirsty; however, drinking large amounts of water at one time can cause further irritation and vomiting when the stomach lining is already tender. When food is reintroduced, it should be soft, low in fat and highly digestible. Cats should be fed multiple small meals daily until their clinical signs are resolved. It may be helpful to feed a late-night meal to help reduce the chances of early morning bouts of vomiting from empty stomach gastric distress.
In severe or chronic cases, the veterinarian will have to determine the cause of the gastritis in order to determine an appropriate treatment protocol. If a bacterial infection is found, antibiotics can be prescribed to treat the condition. If the gastritis is being caused by an underlying medical condition (such as kidney or liver disease or pancreatitis), appropriate steps should be taken to resolve or manage that condition to alleviate the gastric inflammation. Supportive therapies including subcutaneous or intravenous fluid administration, electrolyte regulation and nutritional supplementation may also be necessary.
If the gastritis is due to a tumor or foreign object lodged in the cat’s stomach, surgical removal of the object is probably the only realistic treatment option.